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“THE CRIME OF ALL CRIMES” OF THE TERRORIST ORGANIZATION “ISLAMIC STATE”: THE YAZIDIS GENOCIDE

https://doi.org/10.17803/2313-5395.2017.1.7.200-212

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Abstract

In the Legal Science the materials of the United Nations Special Commission that acknowledged the crimes committed by the terrorist organization “Islamic State” (ISIS) against the Yazidis of Iraq as genocide are analyzed for the first time. The necessity of an affirmative response from the UN Security Council to the appeal of the Commission for the referral of the Yazidis case to the International Criminal Court or establishment, in this regard, of the Special Tribunal is examined. The international solidarity towards the question concerning the combat against the ISIS must be fortified by the same solidarity towards the question concerning protection of the ISIS’ victims. The military and diplomatic relief executed by Russia and the antiterrorist coalition of states led by the USA to support the Yazidis paramilitary groups that fight against the ISIS is offered as the most effective means of restraint on continuing genocide of the Yazidis, and, on the whole, on carving up an ethno-religious map of the region.

About the Author

S. M. Kochoi
Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL)
Russian Federation


References

1. ISIS (or IS) an abbreviation of an organization recognized as terrorist and banned in many countries of the world, including in Russia, called “Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant” (or “Islamic State”).

2. They came to destroy: ISIS Crimes Against the Yazidis. Available at: http:// www.ohchr.org/ Documents/ HRBodies/HRCouncil/CoISyria/A_HRC_32_CRP.2_ en.pdf

3. With the helping hand from American Professor the definition of genocide as the “crime of crimes” came into science. See this: United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law // William A. Schabas. Convention on the Prevention of Genocide and Punishment for it. Available at: http://legal.un.org/avl/pdf/ha/cppcg/cppcg_r. pdf. See also: The Crime of all Crimes: Toward a Criminology of Genocide. By Nicole Rafter (New York University Press), 2016. P. 297.

4. Encyclopedia Iranica. Yazidis I. General. Available at: http://www. iranicaonline.org/articles/yazidis-i-general-1.

5. Genocide watch: the Iraqi communities most endangered by the rise of ISIL. Available at: http://qz.com/245569/genocide-watch-the-communities-most-endangered-by-the-rise-of-isis/.

6. Hamm, M. S. (2009). Prison Islam in the Age of Sacred Terror. British Journal of Criminology. 49 (5): 667-685. First published online June 9, 2009. DOI:10.1093/bjc/azp035.

7. Pirbari, D. V. and Shchedrovitkiy, D. V. (2016). The secret of the pearl: Yazidi theosophy and cosmogony. Moscow - Tbilisi: TAUS. 259 p.

8. Rafter, N. (2016). The Crime of all Crimes: Toward a Criminology of Genocide. New York University Press. 297 p.

9. Sapronova, M. A. (2006). The Iraqi Constitution in the present and in the past (from the history of constitutional development of Iraq). Moscow. 195 p. (In Russ.).

10. Schabas, W. A. The Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Available at: http://legal.un.org/avl/pdf/ha/ cppcg/cppcg_e.pdf

11. Tagay, Ş. and Ortaç, S. (2016). Die Eziden und das Ezidentum. Geschichte und Gegenwart einer vom Untergang bedrohten Religion. Hamburg. 217 s.

12. Encyclopedic dictionary. Moscow, 2009. Available at: http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/es/20492. (In Russ.).

13. They came to destroy: ISIS Crimes against the Yazidis. Available at: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/CoISyria/A_HRC_32_CRP.2_en.pdf.

14. Iraqi Constitution. Final Version. Available at: http://www.iraqinationality. gov.iq/attach/iraqi_constitution.pdf

15. In the State Duma the deputies of the “SR” faction offer to establish criminal liability for the public denial of the facts of the genocide of the Greeks, the Assyrians and the Kurds-Yazidis. Available at: http://www.spravedlivo.ru/5_73369.htm

16. Will the Christians be forced out from the Middle East? Available at: http://www.bbc.com/russian/international/2015/04/150415_middle_east_ christians

17. The USA accused the “Islamic state” of the genocide. Available at: http:// www.bbc.com/russian/news/2016/03/160317_usa_isis_genocide. House to Obama: Label ISIS attacks against Christians ‘genocide’. Available at: http://edition. cnn.com/2016/03/14/politics/isis-house-obama-genocide/ index.html; Islamic State committed genocide against Christians, Shi’ites: U.S. Available at: http://www.reuters. com/ article/us-mideast-crisis-usa-genocide-idUSKCN0WJ1OL?utm_source= twitter. Ref. also: British parliamentarians demand to recognize the ISIS crimes as the genocide. Available at: http://www.bbc.com/russian/news/2015/12/151221_isis_ genocide_britain

18. The Statement of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation “On gross and massive violations of the rights of religious and ethnic minorities in connection with the escalation of the situation in Syria and Iraq of November 14, 2014 No. 5376 6 GDSPS (SPS “ConsultantPlus”). For the adoption of the decision 442 MPs. Voted. See: Duma declared gross and massive violations of the rights of religious and ethnic minorities in Syria and Iraq. Available at: http://www.duma.gov.ru/news/273/ 851,209/?sphrase_ id =2295927

19. The official site of the Political party “Spravedlivaya Rossia” (“SR”). Available at: http://www.spravedlivo.ru/5_63887.html

20. Available at: http://thehill.com/policy/defense/264189-lawmakers-urge-inclusion-of-christians-in-genocide-designation

21. The U.S. Congressmen appealed for recognizing Christians as the victims of the genocide in Syria. RIA News. Available at: http://ria.ru/syria/20151225/1348528136.html#ixzz4CiElTFiS

22. Available at: http://nytlive.nytimes. com/womenintheworld/2016/06/09/amal-clooney-to-represent-isis-survivor-nadia-murad-and-victims-of-yazidi-genocide/; Amal Clooney visited the Yazidis refugees camp. Available at: http://ezidi.news/ru/archives/1086. Ref. also: Amal Clooney ‘will represent Yazidi survivor and ISIL genocide victims’. Available at: http://www. telegraph.co.uk/ news/2016/06/09/ amal-clooney-will-represent-yazidi-survivor-and-isil-genocide-vi/

23. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Human Trafficking survivor Nadia Murad named UNODC Goodwill Ambassador. Available at: https://www. unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2016/September/human-trafficking-survivor-nadia-murad-named-unodc-goodwill-ambassador.html?ref=fs1

24. “The Islamic State” is accused of ethnic cleansing. Available at: www.bbc.co.uk/russian/rolling.../140902_rn_iraq_amnesty_report.shtml; Report: ISIS Puts Literal Price Tags on Abducted Girls. Available at: http:// news. yahoo. com/ report-isis-puts-literal-price-tags-abducted-girls-164302036-abc-news-topstories.html

25. Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) Human Rights Office. Report on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict in Iraq: 6 July - 10 September 2014. Available at: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/IQ/UNAMI_OHCHR_ POC_Report_FINAL_6July_10September2014.pdf

26. Amal Clooney Denouces ISIS ‘Genocide’ in Emotional Speech While Introducing Yazidi Survivor at UN. Available at: http://www.people.com/article/ amal-clooney-nadia-murad-united-nations-goodwill-ambassador

27. More than 15 thousand of ISIS victims were found in mass graves in Syria and Iraq. Available at: http://news-hl-cm.newsrep.net/h5/nrshar

28. ISIS burns 19 Yazidi girls to death in Mosul. Available at: http:// en.abna24.com/service/middle-east-west-asia/archive/2016/06/04/758133/story.html

29. Genocide watch: the Iraqi communities most endangered by the rise of ISIL. Available at: http://qz. com/ 245569/genocide-watch-the-communities-most-endangered-by-the-rise-of-isis/

30. Encyclopedia Iranica. Yazidis i. General. Available at: http:// www. iranicaonline.org/ articles/yazidis-i-general-1; The Encyclopaedic dictionary. M., 2009. Available at: http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/es/20492

31. Such tendencies especially intensified after 03.08.2014 - the day that is considered to be the beginning of the genocide of the Yazidis of Iraq. Ref. about it: Çefik Tagay, Serhat Ortaç. Die Eziden und das Ezidentum. Geschichte und Gegenwart einer vom Untergang bedrohten Religion. Hamburg. 2016. P. 123-137

32. Pirbari D. V., Shchedrovitkiy D. V. The secret of the pearl: Yazidi theosophy and cosmogony. Moscow - Tbilisi: TAUS. 2016. P. 13-22

33. These data differ from the data of the Yazidis and Iraq organizations, according to which 3700 Yazidis women are still captured by ISIS and, in addition, 1914 people are missing. Stellungnahme der Gesellschaft Ezidischer Akademiker Innen (GEA). Available at: https://www.facebook.com/gea.ev/posts/1009339692511960

34. The text of the Constitution available at: http://www.iraqinationality.gov.iq/ attach/iraqi_constitution.pdf

35. The Constitution of Iraqi Kurdistan (2009) also contains similar rules: “This Constitution confirms and respects the Islamic identity of the majority of the people of Iraqi Kurdistan. It considers the principles of Islamic Sharia as one of the main sources of legislation. Likewise, this Constitution upholds and respects all the religious rights of Christians, Yazidis, and others, and it guarantees to every individual in the Region freedom of belief and freedom to practice their religious rites and rituals.” (Art. 6). Draft Constitution of Kurdistan Region - Iraq. Approved by Kurdistan Parliament - Iraq, 24th June 2009. Available at: http://kurdistantribune.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Kurdistan-Draft-Constitutuion-2009.doc. The Russian version available at: http://worldconstitutions.ru/?p=1010.


For citation:


Kochoi S.M. “THE CRIME OF ALL CRIMES” OF THE TERRORIST ORGANIZATION “ISLAMIC STATE”: THE YAZIDIS GENOCIDE. Kutafin Law Review. 2017;4(1):200-212. https://doi.org/10.17803/2313-5395.2017.1.7.200-212

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